Intensive direct observations from the fountains of the historic center of Spoleto, in fact, was highlighted a close correlation between the presence of pigeons and water.
In the historical center of Spoleto, in fact, the concentration of birds is among the highest in the world. This is for its type, and because in the past the dovecote were used for breeding of pigeons, which often represented a source of nourishment (that produce an excellent meat for the home or for the sale and the guano was used to prepare the fertilizer and to feed oxen and pigs).
Over time, especially since the 60s, with the change of socio-economic status, this practice has led to the birds can continue to live in the city without that man control in any possible way.
Today in the historic centers of 4 million Italians live pigeons. For an average city cleaning costs amounted to 40 thousand per year. Only in provincial capitals damage caused by pigeons amounted to 15 million per year. We also observed a significant relationship between the types of architectural elements of historic centers and the presence of pigeons.
In the historical center of Spoleto are wasted about 200 thousand liters of drinking water per year for 400 hours of work cleaning the streets from the guano. There are about 4 km of faucal deposits along the streets of Old Town, 3 km of walls with nesting sites and the population is estimated at 5 thousand units, exceeding the values Europeans and Italians.
Besides the damage to monuments, buildings and degradation of the urban aesthetic, there are also health risks: probability of infection, especially among children and the elderly; toxoplasmosis, salmonellosis, and Borelli, which can be transmitted to humans by pigeon possibility of infestation of houses by ticks and pigeons.
All attempts made by local Umbrian and Italian ones were mostly ineffective in the long term and always very costly in economic terms.
Acting on these resources can reduce the population of birds present in the historical center.